Our mission is to nurture cutting-edge applications for decentralized web software protocols.

Our passion is delivering Web 3.0, a decentralized and fair internet where users control their own data, identity and destiny.

Web 3.0 Technology Stack


Protocol-extensible user-interface cradle (”browser”)

The top level of the stack, this includes the ability for a general user - not developer - to interact with one or more blockchains.

Protocol-extensible user-interface cradle ("browser") - A program which a user would use to interact directly with the blockchain without needing to know implementation details (as a developer might). Examples would include Status, MetaMask, or MyCrypto.


Protocol-extensible developer APIs & languages

This is the layer of human-readable languages and libraries that allow developers to create programs at the proper level of abstraction.

Protocol-extensible developer APIs & languages - There are a variety of languages which can be used to develop applications without dealing with actual bytecode, such as Solidity and Vyper (Ethereum), Plutus (Cardano), and Rust (Substrate). Additionally, there are a variety of frameworks available to make it easier to develop applications interacting with a blockchain, such as ethers.js, web3.js, and oo7.js.


Second layer protocols
State channels
Plasma protocols
Encrypted storage
Heavy computation
Distributed secret management

This layer enhances the capabilities enumerated in Layer 1, by allowing functionality such as increased scaling, encrypted messaging, and distributed computing.

State channels - A way for a blockchain to increase scalability by having nodes communicate with each other off-chain, by "opening" and "closing" channels on the main chain, and writing only initial and final results, instead of each state transition being recorded on the chain. Examples include Bitcoin's Lightning Network and Ethereum's Raiden Network.


Zero/low trust interaction protocols
(Bitcoin, Ethereum, parachains)
Data distribution protocols
Transient data pub/sub messaging

This layer provides the ability to distribute and interact with data.

Zero/low trust interaction protocols - A protocol describing how different nodes can interact with each other and trust computation and information coming from each of them. Most cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and ZCash, meet the definition of a Zero/low trust interaction protocol - they describe the rules necessary for a node to follow to participate in the protocol.


Zero/low trust metaprotocols
Peer-to-peer (p2p) internet overlay protocols
Platform neutral language

This is the foundation of the Web3 technology stack, consisting of how nodes communicate and how they can be programmed at the lowest level.

Zero/low trust interaction platforms (shared security) - A platform implementing a zero/low trust interaction protocol to allow all participating members to share security with each other. Polkadot is an example of this.

What Exactly is Web 3.0?

Juan Benet

Juan Benet, founder and chief executive of Protocol Labs, talks about the Web 3.0 vision and how it relates to humanity going from a pre-computing civilization to a post-computing civilization.

The Journey to Web 3.0

Gavin Wood

Web3 Foundation founder and President Dr. Gavin Wood discusses the ethos and vision behind Web 3.0 and proposes the Web 3.0 Technology Stack as a way to measure our progress.

Want to learn more about our blockchain protocols and open-source work?

Web3 Foundation Projects